Revelation Chapter 15 to 18 and The Song of Moses and the Lamb

The Holy City

“And they sing the song of Moses the servant of God, and the song of the Lamb, saying, Great and marvelous are thy works, Lord God Almighty; just and true are thy ways, thou King of saints” (Revelation 15:3).

The Song

The words of “the song of Moses” and “the song of the Lamb” in Revelation 15:3‑4 remind us of the song of deliverance and victory in Exodus 15, sung by Moses, Miriam, and the children of Israel, after crossing the Red Sea, after coming out of Egypt. Moses composed a hymn of praise in which the people joined, while Moses’ sister Miriam and the singing women prepared a response to various parts of the hymn of praise (Exodus 15:1‑20).

If it was appropriate that the Israelites give glory to God for their deliverance from Egypt, it is much more appropriate that spiritual Israel recognize the still greater deliverance from the power of Satan and the bondage of sin (R3998:6) and in the reassurance of our Heavenly Father’s grace permitting us to be called out of “Babylon” (Revelation 18:4), and recognize and thus stay away from the “antichrist” systems of belief. As the Apostle John said, “Ye are of God, little children, and have overcome them: because greater is he that is in you, than he that is in the world” (1 John 4:4).

Song expresses the feeling of the heart, and there can be no song of joy, no song of the Lord in the hearts of spiritual Israel, if we feel that we are not pleasing to our heavenly Father, if we feel that we are not living in harmony with his will and purpose for us, for only in the sunshine of His love and favor is there joy forevermore in the heart and a song upon the lips of His child. If we are living up to our privileges in Christ Jesus, we will be constantly rejoicing, and the song of the Lord will well up from our hearts and will constantly be upon our lips” (H. V. Warren, 1978).

King Ahaz fostered idolatry (2 Chronicles 28:2-4) and sent silver and gold from the sacred temple to the king of Assyria (2 Kings 16:8). He constructed an altar patterned after a heathen one, replacing the customary temple altar (1 Kings 16:10-15), profaned sacred vessels, and closed the temple (2 Chronicles 28:24).

“All this and his closing the doors of the house of God robbed Israel of her song. And if the song of the Lord shall ever go out of the life of spiritual Israel, it will be because of our closing the door of the temple of our hearts to God’s holy spirit, a gradual closing of the door by a growing neglect of the study of God’s Word. Earnest prayer to the Lord might become too much of a task. The worship of the Lord might lose its attraction. Then would the door to the temple of our heart be closed, and the song of the Lord would cease. How then could one get the song back that he knew when first he loved the Lord? [2 Chronicles 29:27] provides the answer: ‘And when the burnt offering began, the song of the Lord began also.’ What a beautiful picture is the burnt offering of our [devoted appreciation] and of … acceptance by our heavenly Father'” (H. V. Warren, 1978).

We are now learning this song Brethren in Christ!

“Thanks be to God, who gives us the victory [over sin, and thus victory over the world, Egypt] through our Lord Jesus Christ” (1 Corinthians 15:57).

“With the rosy view of the future which the Bible so surely gives, darkness and clouds, sorrows and tears for the immediate present cannot daunt us” (R5799:5).

The song of Moses and the Lamb practiced by the prospective Bride of Christ class while they are training on earth in the Priesthood of Christ, may be heard by others. They preach in perfect accord with the Law and the Gospel (R497:3). They “sing” about the good tidings announced in connection with our Lord’s birth, his ministry; and the testimony of the apostles respecting the Lamb of God and the great work to be accomplished by him (R2569:6). The song of the Lamb is the clearer revelations contained in the writings of the New Testament (C237, Hebrews 7:19, Hebrews 8:5).

This song described in Revelation 15:3,4 is the beautiful and harmonious expression (R497:3) about restitution (R130:3), reflecting an intellectual (R3177:5, R5441:6) understanding of God’s marvelously harmonious Plan. It is a balance of the Old Testament prophecies (the song of Moses) and the New Testament content (the song of the Lamb).

The song, practiced now by the “called” of God (Romans 1:7, Romans 8:28, 1 Thessalonians 4:7) who are seeking to be the Bride of Christ, is driven by their love of God’s perfect standard of righteousness and their delight to do God’s will as they daily mortify the deeds of the flesh, for their eyes of faith are fixed on Christ (Hebrews 12:2,3, 2 Corinthians 4:18) and the one hope found in Christ (Ephesians 4:4). Their joys in the precious promises of God are theirs by faith (Romans 15:13). They seek to gain Christ and Christ alone. They willing lay down their lives as living sacrifices pleasing and acceptable to God (Romans 12:1), cheerfully enduring (Revelation 3:10, Luke 21:19) the testings of faith patiently; an enduring of wrong or affliction with contentment, without rebellion of will, with full acquiescence in the divine wisdom and love. They are fully depending on God’s strength and His leadings in all the affairs of life, and are running the race of the high calling to “win the prize… in Christ Jesus” (Philippians 3:14, 1 Corinthians 9:24).

PHILIPPIANS 3, 7-11.jpg

The song of Moses and the Lamb is “to be sung by the immortalized bride [the 144,000 in glory] on the sea of glass” (HG16:5) who are the overcomers of the Gospel Age (R3078:3). However, those who understand the work of God, and are sympathetic to it, and “who can exercise faith in the Lord” may sing it even now while the work progresses but it is not its complete fulfillment: that will be attained when all the people of God shall have been found  at the end of the Millennial age” (R3999:1). Let us keep practicing and training our “voices” of character, mind, and heart so that we can sing this song in glory, as did the angelic sons of God who “shouted for joy” in the dawn of earth’s creation (Job 38:7).

Those who sing this song teach others through their behaviour, actions, and words to do the same until “all nations will come and worship” (Revelation 15:4) in the presence of God “Who so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth on him shall not perish, but have everlasting life” (John 3:16). Before they can believe they must hear (Romans 10). The billions who have died in ignorance must be made alive before they can hear. Their blessing will come during the Millennium when they “shall learn of the divine mercy, … and they shall bow to the Lord to confess his goodness and his love and enjoy … the opportunity of full reconciliation to God and full return to the perfect conditions of mind and of body, and to life everlasting, lost by Adam’s disobedience, and brought back by the great Redeemer for as many as will receive it upon God’s terms” (R3282). Then all will “come to a knowledge of the truth: For there is one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus, who gave himself a ransom for all, to be testified in due time” (1 Timothy 2:4,6, R76). Once the glory of the Lord shall have filled the Temple, all peoples shall sing this song, just as all of Israel sang the song of Moses when delivered out of Egypt, representing the escape from sin and death (R3283:4).

Great and marvelous thy works, just and true are thy ways!

The Levites who sang at the dedication of the Temple did not sing of divine wrath never ending, but of divine mercy forever (Psalm 136, R3283:4). We can sing now of God’s righteousness and just dealings with the nations, because we have come to see how He permitted evil and death by looking at the work of the next, as well as that of present and past ages (R497). The more advanced our concept of right, truth, holiness, and purity, the more we appreciate the divine view of sin (R3729:4).

Having The Harps of God

In Revelation 15:2, the singers have “harps of God in their hands” with all its strings attuned (R5441:6, 926:4). Our harps are “called The word of God, and Isaiah, Jeremiah, Daniel, David, Job, Moses, and all the Prophecies are but strings to our harp; they only require keying up and they will produce the sweetest harmony to this ‘Song of Moses and the Lamb,’ for as Peter says, God hath spoken of the restitution by the mouth of all these holy Prophets (Acts 3:21)” (R130).

Revelation 15:2-4

In Revelation chapter 15 and 16, the seven vials of the wrath of God, that close out this age and introduce the next, are described as poured out by seven angels in divine service. The blessings of the kingdom follow this work, and wait for its completion. In the meantime, those who appreciate the aim and result can sing with thanks and praise for the Divine action.

The “sea of glass” perhaps refers to the large “sea” or laver of water before the temple of God (2 Chronicles 4:2). The laver contained water for washing, and thus draws to our mind the cleansed or justified class of believers who stand above the world with a higher prospect and understanding. The “sea of glass mingled with fire” suggests the judgments of God that proceed during the Harvest, as described in the pouring of the seven vials. “Above the troubled people are the overcomers — calm, serene, untroubled. Their position shows that their standing is by faith (Matthew 14:29). To the eye of faith all is transparent as glass” (R497).

Brother Charles T. Russell wrote in an August 1880 Zion’s Watchtower article (R130): “We believe that this fire [trouble] has been mingling or coming among the people since 1873, and that it is to continue until 1914” (R130). Pastor Russell understood the period of the last plague “to be the closing act in the drama of this age” (R497). “An important difference exists between our view and that of many others however, in that they suppose the end of the age to be accompanied by the destruction of the people, and of the earth itself; while we understand that it is the ending of the present reign of evil, and a necessary preparation of mankind for the reign of righteousness” (R497).

Since Pastor Russell’s passing in 1916, clearer prophetic insight for the last 102 years has been permitted due to the unfolding of Biblical Prophecies. It is now apparent that the “time of trouble” (Daniel 12:1) that began in 1914 is a process consuming many decades. Elijah’s vision of the time of trouble shows three waves of activity (1 Kings 19:11,12).

(1) The winds of war came in two stages, World War I followed by World War II.

(2) The earthquake breaking up the colonial powers proceeded thereafter, perhaps until the break up of the Soviet Union in 1989.

(3) The fire of Islamic insurgency continues until Armageddon and its consequent effects, which close out the “time of trouble” and introduce the long sought Millennial Kingdom.

The ending part of this “time of trouble” will be punctuated with the seventh plague (beginning with Armageddon), and the loosing of the four winds of Revelation chapter seven. These will come after the saints have been “sealed,” apparently referring to the completion of the Bride class in glory. Recall that in Exodus 12:29, the firstborn were delivered from the power of the death angel, as the last plague was poured. So the “Church of the firstborn” are “passed over” from death to life at the outset of the final judgments against this “world,” or order of things.

The Crossing of the Red Sea Versus the Deliverance of the Saints of the Gospel Age

In Revelation there are seven last plagues, whereas in Exodus there were ten plagues. It seems to many brethren therefore that the first three of the ten in Egypt refer to distresses on Christendom that precede the seven last plagues of Revelation. These may be the (1) Reformation, (2) the French Revolution, and the (3) Adventist Movement, which all prepared the way for the end of the age.

After crossing the Red Sea, the awesome and eerie calmness of the sea, when restored to its normal height, could be likened to a sea of glass without a ripple (Matthew 8:26), as Israel looked down in hushed and prolonged silence upon the Egyptians dead upon the sea shore. Just as the seventh plague of Revelation 16 is in three parts — Armaggedon, Earthquake, Hail — so the end of Papacy is described in three parts in Revelation 18:8Death, Mourning, Famine.

The 144,000 members of the Bride of Christ will be complete in glory at the opening of the 7th plague of Revelation 16. Some members of the Great Company class will linger here, passing through this “great tribulation” while washing their robes (Revelation 7:14).

In this Exodus 15 account, Moses is a type of Christ, and the Israelites picture of the Lord’s people who sing the song of praise. Standing beside the sea, but at a higher elevation, the Israelites were witnesses of God’s judgment on Pharaoh and his host (Psalm 136:15).

The saints living at the end of this Gospel age must be faithful unto death (Revelation 2:10); they must be victors in every test. The enemies which have confronted the saints are many. Revelation 15 mentions these —

The beast, Papacy, which is described symbolically in the opening verses of Revelation 13.

The image of the beast. Here are some suggestions respecting this. “The Image was formed by the organization of the ‘Evangelical Alliance’ in 1846 … [thus] the overcomers of the ‘Image’ could not occupy this position of favor and exaltation prior to that date. This furnishes a general reason for believing that the plagues must commence this side of the date mentioned, since it is during the pouring out of the plagues that the overcomers occupy this condition upon the ‘sea of glass'” (R497). The image may refers to “organized sectarian Protestantism” (R497), perhaps allied in spirit.

The image of the beast is later referred to as the false prophet (Church of England) which is one of the three entities combining in plague six (Revelation 16:12-14) as a prelude to Armageddon (Revelation 16:16).

There is a comparison to be made between the golden image of Daniel 3:1, and the image of the beast in Revelation 13:18. In both instances the numbers mentioned are multiples of six. Both refer to statues that are set up. Both have to do with religious worship, and in each case the penalty for failure to do so is death.

King Nebuchadnezzar represents the civil or “dragon” element of society (Revelation 16:3) and it is these world governments (political power under the influence of Satan) that will try to co-operate together with the actions of the “beast” and its “image” (that represent the clerical or religious element on earth) to try to stabilize the crumbling societies of the world when things really start to pull apart — the brunt of this we believe, will occur in just over a decade from now).  These co-operative efforts will be born out of weakness, not strength but their efforts and croaking together “like frogs” (Revelation 16:13) will prove abortive (Revelation 16:18,19).

Babylon is pictured as a harlot in Revelation 17. The harlotry of the apostate church is due to her having a unification (adulterous marriage) with the governments of this world. On the other hand, the true saints (who are represented as the wise virgins in Matthew 25:1-13), strive to keep themselves separate from all entanglements with the world.

Revelation 10:1 in the sixth trumpet (the longest of all the trumpet descriptions, Revelation 9:13-11:14) depicts an angel with a rainbow — an emblem that the distress (of the 1260 years and its persecution unto death by Papacy) is past, just as the rainbow in the cloud after the Flood meant that the experience would not be repeated. This indicates that the persecution of the saints by Papacy, in the manner that it was exhibited during the 1260 years of Papal power, is over, not to be repeated.

In Revelation 17 the Papal system (represented as the “whore”) is destroyed. The 10 horns and the beast (that is, the people, the body of the beast ridden formerly by Papacy, the woman) will eat and devour and burn the whore. The “hour” in Revelation 17:12 is the time of her final judgment, depicted in the Old Testament as Jezebel being eaten by the dogs. Compare Revelation 18:10, “Alas, alas that great city Babylon, that mighty city! for in one hour is thy judgment come.”

 The “mark” of the beast is an identifying mark that the recipient is in sympathy with Papacy. The mark could be either in the forehead (belief and mental agreement with Papacy), or in the hand (sympathetic activity with Papacy) — Revelation 13:16.

 The “number of his name — which is 666. The number six represents something sinful or away from the holy influence of God, and the triple appearance here intensifies the connection (Revelation 13:18). Compare Lamech’s “number” or lifespan of 777, whom some believe is related to the true church.

For many centuries the Papal System persecuted the saints of God. Revelation 13:7,6,5 — “It was given unto him to make war with the saints, and to overcome them … he opened his mouth in blasphemy against God … power was given unto him to continue 42 months.”

The number 666 some think is reflected also in the Latin title which the pope has taken to himself, “Vicarius Filii Dei,” that is, “Vicar of the Son of God.” Of the Latin letters in this title, those which the Latins also used to represent numerals, add up to 666. (In Latin the “U” of Vicarius becomes a “V,” and the double U [W] is actually a double V. Br. Frank Shallieu, “The Keys of Revelation,” page 361).

The Trinity: “The number 666 is composed of three 6’s. The fact that it is one number, yet contains three integers, may suggest the doctrine that from the time of Arius has been embraced by the nominal Church… The pagan Trinitarian doctrine, as shown so profusely by Alexander Hislop’s “The Two Babylons,” existed many centuries prior to the introduction of Christianity into the world. This unholy and unscriptural doctrine found its way into nominal churchianity about the time of Constantine. It not only existed in Babylon but also was expressed in the complicated theology of Hinduism and Brahmanism (Br. Frank Shallieu, “The Keys of Revelation,” page 366).

“Just and true are your ways”

“Who, but those who see the restitution to be accomplished in the next age, could sing this part of the song? Not one; Christendom in general fears to think of God’s justice in dealing with the nations in general, the great majority of whom have gone down into death without any knowledge of the only name whereby we must be saved. The righteousness, and justice, and love of God’s dealing, can only be seen by looking at the work of the next, as well as at that of present and past ages. Yes indeed we rejoice to proclaim to all who have an ‘ear to hear’ — Just and true are Jehovah’s ways in ruling the nations” (Br. Charles Russell, R497).

‘For all the nations shall come and worship in thy presence, because thy righteous acts are manifested.’ This is the last note of the song, and is full of force and meaning. How few are proclaiming, either publicly or privately, this part of the song. Some believe that many of the nations now dead are in a place of mental or physical torture, there to remain to all eternity. Others claim that they are dead, and will never again have life; others that those who are dead, will be raised from death to pass a mock trial, and be destroyed. But how few can sing this song of restitution, declaring that all nations shall yet come from death, and shall worship their Lord and Redeemer, when brought to a knowledge of the truth (1 Timothy 2:4). Even Sodom, a nation long since destroyed, shall come and worship (Ezekiel 16:48‑63)” (R497).

“King of the Ages”

“The Sinaitic manuscript renders the phrase “King of saints” as “King of the ages,” which appears to be the proper thought. The emphasis indicates that as God brings to a successful conclusion His purposes with respect to the Gospel Age, so likewise He will bring to a triumphant climax at the end of the Millennial Age His purposes in regard to mankind. This is the song and this is the confidence of the saints in verse 3. The fulfillment of Revelation 15:4 is yet future — the very near future it is believed!” (Br. Frank Shallieu, The Keys of Revelation, page 400).

Christ returned in 1874, and the Time of Trouble began in 1914 (Daniel 12:1). When the final stage of the trouble has come upon Christendom, after Israel’s deliverance, and the subsequent “earthquake” and “hail” that complete the seventh plague (Revelation 16:18-21), the revelation will dawn upon the people of Earth that God has intervened in a remarkable way. Thereafter, in Christ’s 1000 year reign of righteousness, all humanity will seek and obey the laws of the Kingdom (Psalms 96:11,13).

Tune Your Harps

Dearly Beloved Brethren in Christ —

“tune up your harps, and sing aloud our glad song of ‘Jubilee.’ Sing to your dear friends who love God, despite what seems to them his injustice. But if they will not hear sing to the world. It will be a ‘Bow of promise’ to them when they go further down into the time of trouble. And if you cannot do this sing it loudly in your own heart. It will joy and comfort bring you, to think of our Father’s love and realize that ‘His mercy endureth forever’ (Psalm 136). It will open and warm your heart and enrich it with love, both for your Father and for those who are the objects of His care and love” (R130).

Let us present ourselves as peace offerings, such as the Ram of Consecration, so that our lives may ascend as a sweet savor, to our Heavenly Father. Our consecration “is not to this condition or to that condition, to this prize or to that prize, but it is to our heavenly Father, to the One on high, an ascending consecration to God alone .. a full, entire, and complete consecration, nothing held back; not a part or partial … offering, but a whole.” “For our consecration to be acceptable in the sight of God, we must be stripped of all fleshly coverings. Hebrews 4:13, “Neither is there any creature that is not manifest in his sight; but all things are naked and laid open before the eyes of him with whom we have to do” (H. V. Warren, 1978).

As we onward sojourn without murmuring, seeking the Promised Land of Zion above, may we with great joy in the one Love, one Hope, and one Faith, and testifying and proclaiming of God’s acts of justice, love, wisdom, and power, continue to gladly and with thanksgiving in and for all experiences, sing:

“‘Not my own!’ my time, my talent,
Freely all to Christ I bring,
To be used in joyful service
For the glory of my King.”

Have You Lost the Song?

Dear friend — If you ever feel you have lost the song of the Lord, or if you feel you are walking through a valley which is overcast with the shadow of death, then may you gain great encouragement through the words of Brother H. V. Warren’s article “The Song of the Lord” in The Herald of Christ Kingdom Magazine (A direct website link of this article is cited in the Reference section below).

“When the burnt offering began, the song of the Lord began also” (2 Chronicles 29:27).

———————————-

References, Acknowledgment and Suggested Further Reading:

“R” – represents the references to the article numbers of the Reprints of the Original Zion’s Watch Tower and Herald of Christ’s Presence.
http://www.htdbv8.com/reprintA.html

Harvest Gleanings (HG)

Click to access HG1.pdf

Br. David Rice — Editing.

Br. Frank Shallieu — “The Keys of Revelation,” pages 398‑400.

Br. Jim Parkinson, “The Exodus Plagues,” The Herald of Christ’s Kingdom, January / February 2018.
https://herald‑magazine.com/2018/01/01/the‑exodus‑plagues/

V. Warren, “The Song of the Lord,” in The Herald of Christ’s Kingdom, July / August 1978
http://www.heraldmag.org/archives/1978_4.htm#_Toc36734285

“God’s Comprehensive Law,” The Herald of Christ’s Kingdom, Volume 14. August 1‑15, 1931 No. 15/16
http://www.heraldmag.org/archives/1931_8.htm#_Toc23239884

Br. William J. Hollister, Notes on the Book of Revelation, Miami, Florida, May 1, 1960 (found in the Bible Study Library).

Christ’s Parousia (Second Presence) In 1874
https://biblestudentsdaily.com/2017/11/10/christs-parousia-second-presence-in-1874/

Moses and The Lamb — Hymns of Dawn No. 17
https://biblestudentsdaily.com/2018/05/19/moses-and-the-lamb-hymns-of-dawn-no-17/

Revelation Chapter 15 to 18 and The Song of Moses and The Lamb
https://biblestudentsdaily.com/2018/05/21/revelation-chapter-15-to-18-and-the-song-of-moses-and-the-lamb/

All For Jesus – Hymns of Dawn No. 8
https://biblestudentsdaily.com/2017/11/19/all-for-jesus-hymns-of-dawn-no-8/

Church Union and the Antichrist Booklet: https://chicagobible.org/product/church-union-the-antichrist/

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STUDY 8: The Tabernacle Coverings

The Tabernacle Coverings.jpg

The Tabernacle structure was overlaid with 4 coverings as explained in detail in Exodus chapter 26 (and chapter 36). There were 2 primary coverings of measured dimensions and 2 additional coverings over those.

The Two Inner Coverings or Curtains

The two inner coverings formed the “MISHKAN” the Tabernacle proper.

  1. The First Covering

The Tabernacle was covered by a large white linen cloth composed of ten curtains interwoven with figures of cherubim, in blue, purple, and scarlet (Exodus 26:1, 36:8-13).

Each curtain was 28 cubits x 4 cubits, making a total of 28 cubits across and 40 cubits from front to back. The ten curtains were sewn into two sets 28 x 20 and these two sets were coupled together with 50 blue loops on each joined by 50 gold clasps. This joint would have been situated above the pillars of the vail (Exodus 26:33).

Since the dwelling was 30 x 10 cubits, this linen curtain covered the roof and both the northern and the southern side of the Tabernacle plus the back (western side).

If this linen curtain had have hung straight down, then it would have reached 9 cubits from the top of the Tabernacle structure (on the northern and southern side) and 10 cubits on the back (western side) and this would mean that the western corners of the curtain would be dragging along the dirty ground — and we do not believe this was the case. This white curtain presumably did not drape straight down, but was angled outward on the ropes that were secured by the pins and cords of both the Tabernacle and the court, Exodus 35:18:

18 The pins (“tent pegs,” NIV) of the tabernacle, and the pins of the court, and their cords(“ropes,” NIV).”

If not for these cords (that would have kept the curtain from going straight down), then the two back corners would have lain on the dirty ground — just as the two corners of a bedspread go farther down than the bedspread on the three sides of a bed. Thus it we understand the curtain did not drag along the ground.

The pure linen covering with its embroidery represents the New Creation, holy (white linen), sanctified (set apart for God’s service), with the fruits of the spirit intertwined in their character.

This covering was in two main parts — five strips in each part.

The two main parts represents the two parts of the New Creation — our Lord Jesus, and the Church, his Bride class.

That there were five strips in each part is consistent with the use of the number five elsewhere in the Scriptures to represent the New Creation. (Thus the five wise virgins of the parable and their companions of the same number, the five foolish virgins.) As Jesus is the effulgence of God’s glory, so the Church will reflect the glory of God also, and thus the splendid beauty of this covering. [See Study 3 of “Beauties of the Tabernacle” on this website titled “The Tabernacle Construction: The Holy & The Most Holy.”]

The gold clasps suggest the divine nature to be obtained by the Church.

The loops of blue suggest the bonds of faith and fidelity that hold the Church as a unit. They are 50 in number, appropriate for the New Creation which is often represented by the number 5 or its higher orders, 50, 500, 5000. [see Study 3 of “Beauties of the Tabernacle”].

This overwhelming inner beauty of the Tabernacle may reflect our Heavenly Father’s interest in having a dwelling place of the holy Spirit where the inward detail of our lives is beautiful because of our efforts of striving for righteousness in all.

  1. The Second Covering

The second covering over the linen curtain was the goats hair curtain. (Exodus 26:7-13; 36:14-18). This one extended a cubit further on the back and 2 outer sides than did the first linen curtain underneath it.

It consisted of eleven curtains 30 cubits x 4 cubits. Eleven of the curtains made 30 cubits across (2 cubits wider than the first linen covering) and 42 cubits overall length (2 cubits longer than the first linen covering) from front to back (Exodus 26:9).

At the front of the Tabernacle, the 11th of the four-cubit-wide curtains was doubled over — (creating a one cubit vertical “ledge” above, at the front of the Tabernacle door) — something unique to this particular curtain, possibly signifies that when we begin our consecration we have a double measure of goat nature, but less of it later on.

Just like the white linen curtain, this goat’s hair curtain did not touch the ground in the back but would have been elevated by ropes (cords) that were pegged to the ground outside with bronze pegs so that it hung down at an angle preventing them from getting dirty and degraded easily.

The goats hair curtain was also sewn into two sets, but this time the two sets of 50 loops were joined by 50 bronze clasps.

Bronze, (chiefly copper) representing human nature which is noted in the bronze serpent (Numbers 21:9) — representing the justified human nature of Jesus that was sacrificed for us to remove our sins. Thus bronze clasps are appropriate here, because this covering represents the human nature (in its perfection — thanks only to the imputed robe of Christ’s righteousness covering us so that a fully consecrated justified believer can be reckoned as righteous in the eyes of God) of the New Creation while in the flesh.

In other words, the goat hair covering represents our old nature (the fleshly), in which we have our spiritual hopes.

It is interesting to note that there was no bronze inside the Tabernacle, showing that the calling of the saints is away from the flesh, into the spirit.

One wonders whether the joining clasp areas of the linen and goat hair coverings may have allowed some ventilation for the Tabernacle and a place of exit for the smoke from the incense altar and the lamps. Our “ventilation” from the sorrows and difficulties of the flesh also is upward, through our prayers to our Heavenly Father (Psalm 34:4).

However, this possibility seems foreclosed, because the clasped area for the linen covering, and the clasped area for the goat hair covering, did not line up with each other, to allow such ventilation. This is because of the stagger of 1/2 curtain width in one covering relative to the other, occasioned by folding one of the goat hair curtains in half at the front of the Tabernacle.

The Bride class is depicted in Song of Solomon 4:1 as having “hair as a flock of goats,” which further connects the goat hair curtain with the Church class.

This covering represented the Church, as sacrificed with Jesus, as an offering given for the purpose of cleansing the world from sin during the Millennium. In this, it reminds us of the goat for a sin offering that was offered on the Day of Atonement.

Jesus’ sacrifice as a sin offering was represented in the bullock for a sin offering on the Day of Atonement [as is discussed in Post 7 of “Beauties of the Tabernacle” on this website, titled “Study 7: The Priests. The Day of Atonement.”] The Church shares with Jesus in suffering and sacrifice during the present Gospel Age, in order to assist Jesus during the Kingdom to cleanse the world from their propensity for sin. The share of the Church class in this service is represented in the goat hair curtain.

As the Church is presently imperfect, they need a covering for their imperfections in order to be an acceptable sacrifice to God. That covering is the Ransom given by Jesus represented in the covering of rams’ skins dyed red, which was above the goat hair curtain.

The 5 strips represents the Church as the New Creation:

i.e.

2  (holy Spirit — the understanding of God’s divine plan and God’s influence on our character through studying the Old and New Testaments of the Bible)
+   
3  (redemption through Christ’s blood)
=
5  (the New Creation in Christ).

The 6 strips — show we are still in sinful flesh.

The 11 strips in total — is a picture of the Church in the flesh but with their new hopes. Thus the need for the ram skin dyed red covering, of the ransom.

It is most interesting to note that the perimeter of this covering of goat’s hair, with the “sixth curtain” doubled over in the forefront of the Tabernacle (Exodus 26:9) measures exactly 144 cubits, which when multiplied by 1000 (God’s number in the Tabernacle), gives the number of those who will share with Jesus in the sin offering of atonement, 144,000 — the Elect, Bride of Christ (Revelation 7, 14).

The Outer Coverings

The outer coverings formed the “OHEL” — the large tent, that spread over the first two coverings (curtains), protecting them from the sun and rain. This was the covering mentioned in Exodus 40:19 which was put over the top of the tent (the curtains or Tabernacle proper). These coverings were a weather proof protection to the tabernacle and were held in place by cords and pins fixing them to the ground.

  1. The Third Covering

The third covering was made of ram skins dyed red (Exodus 26:14, 36:19; Numbers 4:25).

The ram skins dyed red covering represents the ransom sacrifice, which covers our imperfect humanity. It is over the goat hair covering, to show that it covers our flesh with its imperfections.

A ram is a grown male sheep and the head of the flock. A shepherd may have one or two rams in a flock of ewes to promote uniformity. The ram is forever in the eyes of the Jew as the substitute animal, faithful unto death. This is of course because God provided a ram as a substitute for Isaac on that day when Abraham’s faith was revealed (Genesis 22:12-13).

The ram’s skins were dyed red to represent the ransom sacrifice of Jesus shedding his blood on the cross for the redemption of all mankind from inherited Adamic sin.

John 1:29 — “The next day John saw Jesus coming toward him, and said, “Behold! The Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world!”

Hebrews 2:9 — “But we see Jesus, who was made a little lower than the angels, for the suffering of death crowned with glory and honor, that He, by the grace of God, might taste death for everyone.”

Hebrews 2:17 — “Therefore, in all things He had to be made like His brethren, that He might be a merciful and faithful High Priest in things pertaining to God, to make propitiation for the sins of the people.”

Thus, the first layer typifies the New Creation, the second layer shows that we are still in the flesh, the third layer typifies that Jesus bore our sins and shed his blood to redeem us.

Measurements for both the 3rd (ram’s skin) & 4th (sea cow skin) coverings are not given in the Bible nor are we told precisely how they covered. Thus some artist conceptions show them as a covering tent, not in direct contact with the goat hair covering. In any case, we presume the third covering was more than sufficient to cover the second, and that the fourth was more than sufficient to cover the third.

Nevertheless, the reason for no dimension given for the ram’s skin covering may be as if to say that God’s love manifested toward the world, in the sending of his son “out of the realms of light into the shades of night,” to become the man Christ Jesus and thus to give himself a ransom for all, is immeasurable!! Who can measure it?

The ram and sea cow coverings were not divided into units as were the other two, which may mean that while the Church shares together with Jesus in the sin offering and in the glory of the kingdom, it cannot and does not share either in the humiliation of the Logos in leaving his glory to become the man Christ Jesus, nor in his death as the ransom sacrifice for the sins of the world.

  1. The Fourth Covering

The fourth and top covering was made of  sea cows’ (manatee or dugong) skins (mistranslated badger skins) (Exodus 26:14, 36:19).

This outward covering was serviceable for the elements of weather, rather than suited for attractive décor. Thus it was durable (Exodus 26:14). It was not especially attractive, just as the world sees no attraction to our service in the present time. However, in the Millennium they will see the Church class cleared of all unattractive conditions. She will then be seen in her glory and grandeur; just as the temple, a type of the glorified Church, was covered with plates of gold, there were no ugly skins.

As this outward covering hid all that was beneath it, so also, Jesus’ flesh did not reveal him to be what he truly was — the Messiah whom Israel so long sought. When he presented himself to his own people as simple and humble, “his own received him not” (John 1:11) for they beheld in him “no form nor comeliness … no beauty” that they should desire him (Isaiah 53:1-2). Jesus said, “though seeing they do not see, though hearing, they do not hear or understand” (Matthew 13:13). They see only the outer things. But blessed are those who use the eyes of faith and enter in.

To those of us who have accepted Jesus as our Personal Redeemer and Advocate and Sin offering, Jesus is to us part of our being… the “altogether lovely One” (Song of Solomon 5:16). He is the “Rose of Sharon,” the “Lily of the Valley” (Song of Solomon 2:1) and the “fairest among 10,000” (Song of Solomon 5:10) to our souls… Jesus Christ is our Bridegroom and our Head, our ultimate example of everything and everyone, our source of “oxygen” and the source of our eternal joy already now while still in the flesh, whom we long to belong to, forever more.

If anyone desired to look beyond the outer flesh covering they will see Christ’s glory. Just as questioned by Nathanael “Can any good thing come out of Nazareth?” (see Post titled: Will Mankind Need To Become “Israelites Indeed”) Jesus says, “Come and see.”

God does not attract anyone by apparent riches. We do not come to God because of the majesty and beauty of some building. Our reasons are not visible. The ones who endure to the end are those who do not have an outward beautiful appearance but who have an inward heavenly beauty and divine comeliness. Christ is both their content and covering, so nothing can damage or overcome them. We must learn to seek Christ in the spirit, as then we will enjoy the riches of Christ. Ultimately we will arrive at the measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ (Ephesians 3:8, 4:13).

Many think that the Truth is as unattractive as a manatee’s skin. Many think a Christian life is sad and dark; they do not know that for Christians the exterior has no value. Inside there is light, joy, richness, and peace — the “inside” being founded on the precious promises and the joy of pleasing a Creator whose standard of righteousness leads to the highest level of happiness and joy that anyone could imagine and which provides the means for us to gain immortality.

The Manatee

The Manatee - for the Tabernacle's fourth covering.jpg

It was also a peculiar skin and this illustrates the peculiarity of God’s people. The world does not like this peculiarity and considers us a bit out of our minds.

The manatees are gentle, herbivorous, and possibly ritually clean creatures, like the Church, who are out of their natural habitat, “the heavenlies” of Ephesians 2:6. Jesus, in his pre-human existence, was “the Logos” (“the Word,” John 1:1). His natural habitat was the spirit plane on which he was created. Thus being on earth was being out of his natural, comfortable environment, also.

A Summary — The Antitypical Lesson Behind All Four Coverings

Since the Tabernacle depicts things as they are during the Gospel Age, the saints are a new creation (linen with cherubim), sacrificing in the flesh (goat hair curtain), covered by the ransom (ram skins dyed red), apparent to the world as a drab outer covering which refers to the flesh of the saints, reflective of how our Lord Jesus was treated during the 3 1/2 sacrificial years of his life as a sin offering (aged 30-33 1/2 years) who “was despised and rejected by men, a man of sorrows, and familiar with suffering… like one from whom men hide their faces he was despised…numbered with the transgressors,” until our precious Lord Jesus, “poured out his life unto death”  (Isaiah 53:2-12, NIV).

Why Four Coverings?

Since four refers to the concept of testing or judgment, perhaps there being four coverings could suggest that this is how the Church is represented while under judgment in this life.

Likewise, at the entrance of the most holy of the Tabernacle, the time of judgment of the Church, there are four posts. Other Biblical examples of four representing judgment and testing include:

  • the second feeding of four thousand by Jesus, representing the time of harvest and judgment closing the Gospel age;
  • the forty years in the wilderness representing the Gospel age period of testing, trial, development;
  • the four hundred years of Genesis 15:13 which describes the period of the affliction of the seed of Abraham and represents the Gospel age affliction of the Church. These four hundred years, if multiplied by the 360 days in a prophetic year, yield 144,000, the number of the church in Revelation.
  • It is also noteworthy that of the dated visions of Jeremiah in chapters 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, and 36, three are dated in the fourth year of Jehoiakim, and three in the fourth year of Zedekiah — all six judgments are in a year four.
  • When the seven times of punishment on Israel was represented in Nebuchadnezzar’s dream, the expression “seven times” appeared four times in the narrative, and four times in the warning by Moses (Daniel 4, Leviticus 26). These judgments were fulfilled by four Gentile kingdoms dominating Israel during the 2,520 years of their national punishment.

In all these uses, four is linked to the concept of trial, testing, probation, judgment.
Which one?

Out of the following four drawings, which do you think would be the most probable to represent the actual Tabernacle Proper’s covering setup?

the tabernacle structure - which one was it.jpg

Not the first one. All the four coverings were draped on cords at an angle (not downward straight as covering a box). If one stretched the cords entirely vertically, then the pegs would be right next to the boards and sockets of the Tabernacle which would be a clumsy arrangement and the back corners of the first two coverings would then both be dragged along the ground, become very dirty and corrupted. (This has been discussed earlier in this Post.)

The covering was unlikely to be as the one in the 4th picture because there is no reference to the supports that appear to be necessary in that case for holding up the curtains on the side before they go straight down.

If the outer covering were like a circus top, then another beam or pole(s) would most likely be mentioned in the Bible that gives the added pointy height, hence eliminating the possibility of covering appearing as in the third drawing.

On the other hand, such a ridge pole might simply be covered by the term “tent;” all tents requiring some poles for erecting them.

Based on the data read and researched, we conclude that the Tabernacle covering was most possibly as the 2nd drawing (top right) demonstrates. Probably the first two coverings were draped as suggested in Drawing No. 2. The last two coverings may have been a tent over the whole, like one of the bottom two. Artistically, the author likes the last one, perhaps even with an extension to the back like the side extensions. But one cannot be sure.

Hidden Beauty

It has been a matter of surprise to some, that the glories and beauties of the Tabernacle — its golden walls, its golden and beautifully engraved furniture, and vail of curious work — were so completely covered and hidden from view of the people; no sunlight from without even to illuminate its glorious beauty. Yet you see, there is a beautifully glorious lesson behind this.

God covered the type and hid its beauty under skins and curtains, so the glories and beauties of spiritual things are seen only when within by those who enter the Tabernacle.

During the Gospel Age it is the “royal priesthood” and “peculiar people” who respond to God’s invitation and suffer with Christ developing into His likeness of character and conduct who may enter a hidden glory which the world and all outside fail to recognize and comprehend. Their standing as new creatures in Christ are hidden from their fellow men.

“But the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God: for they are foolishness unto him: neither can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned” (1 Corinthians 2:14).

“Ah; these are of a royal line,
All children of a King,
Heirs of immortal crowns divine,
And lo, for joy they sing!
Why do they, then, appear so mean?
And why so much despised?
Because of their rich robes unseen
The world is not apprised.”

To these “God would make known what is the riches of the glory of this mystery among the Gentiles; which is Christ in you, the hope of glory: 28Whom we preach, warning every man, and teaching every man in all wisdom; that we may present every man perfect in Christ Jesus: 29Whereunto I also labour, striving according to his working, which worketh in me mightily” (Colossians 1:27-29).

References & Acknowledgment

“The Tabernacle and Its Teachings” — Supplement to Feb. ZION’S WATCH TOWER, 1882 page 52.

“Our Wilderness Wanderings” — by Br. Anton Frey.

Content — assisted by Br. David Rice.

Further Suggested Reading

STUDY 1: An Introduction To The Tabernacle And It’s Purpose
URL: https://biblestudentsdaily.com/2016/09/02/study-1-an-introduction-to-the-tabernacle-and-its-purpose/

STUDY 2: The Pillar of Cloud By Day And The Pillar of Smoke By Night  https://biblestudentsdaily.com/2016/09/09/study-2-the-pillar-of-cloud-by-day-and-the-pillar-of-smoke-by-night/

STUDY 3: The Tabernacle Construction: The Holy and The Most Holy   https://biblestudentsdaily.com/2016/09/14/study-3-the-tabernacle-construction-the-holy-the-most-holy/

STUDY 4: The Court (“Holy Place”)
https://biblestudentsdaily.com/2016/09/20/study-4-the-court-holy-place/

STUDY 5: The Camp. The Israelites.
https://biblestudentsdaily.com/2016/10/28/study-5-the-camp-the-israelites/

STUDY 6: The Levites
https://biblestudentsdaily.com/2016/11/18/study-6-the-levites/

STUDY 7: The Priests. The Day of Atonement.
https://biblestudentsdaily.com/2016/12/10/study-7-the-priests-the-day-of-atonement/

STUDY 8: The Tabernacle Coverings
https://biblestudentsdaily.com/2017/01/02/study-8-the-tabernacle-coverings/

STUDY 9: The Gate. The Door. The Vail.
https://biblestudentsdaily.com/2017/03/01/study-9-the-gate-the-door-the-vail/

The URL for this post:
https://biblestudentsdaily.com/2017/01/02/study-8-the-tabernacle-coverings/

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